Mixture of demerara (or any raw sugar), cinnamon, and cardamom
ACTIVATE THE YEAST:
In a small bowl, stir 1/2 tsp sugar, 1/4 tsp flour and yeast into 2 TBS warm water. Cover with plastic wrap, and allow it to stand for 5 minutes until bubbly.
MAKE THE DOUGH:
In a medium saucepan, heat the milk to just below boiling , stirring constantly. Allow to cool slightly.
In bowl of mixer, add the scalded milk to 3 TBS sugar and 3/4 tsp salt until combined.
Add the beaten egg, 1 TBS melted butter, and the yeast mixture.
Add 1/4 cup of the sifted flour. Stir until combined.
Slowly add small amounts of the flour until the dough begins to clean the bowl.
Turn dough out onto floured surface and knead, continuing to add small amounts of flour until the dough is smooth and no longer sticky. You might not use all of the flour.
Place dough ball into a greased mixing bowl and cover with plastic wrap and a dish towel. Let rise in a warm place for 90 minutes or until doubled in size.
TO MAKE THE FILLING
In a bowl, mix together the walnuts with sugar, cinnamon, and cardamom.
In a saucepan, heat the milk and butter to boiling, and then pour over the nut mixture. Allow to cool slightly and then add egg yolk and vanilla. Mix thoroughly.
Allow mixture to come to room temperature.
ASSEMBLING THE DOUGH
Turn dough out onto a floured surface and with a floured rolling pin, roll out dough to a rectangle approximately 10x12 inches. Lightly brush with melted butter.
Continue rolling until dough is very, very thin. Occasionally lift the dough and sprinkle extra flour on your surface as needed to prevent sticking and tearing.
Spread nut filling over the top of dough, leaving a little room around the edges.
Carefully and slowly roll the dough up like a jelly roll. Starting at the center, gently pull the log toward the edges to make it slightly longer.
Using a 9x5 loaf pan as a guide, create an S-shape with your dough that will fit inside of the pan.
Thoroughly grease your pan and lay the dough inside. Allow to rest for about 30 minutes, and then brush with a beaten egg and top with raw sugar, cinnamon, and cardamom.
Bake at 350F for about 15 minutes. Turn down oven temperature to 300F
Bake an additional 45 minutes. Add an aluminum foil tent to dough if it starts to brown too quickly or too much. Bread is done when it is a deep golden brown, begins to pull away at the edges, and has a hollow sound when you thunk on it.
Remove from oven and allow to cool completely before removing from pan. Slice with a serrated knife. Sometimes it's easiest to turn the loaf upside down before cutting.